All posts by Mr. Melon

អក្សរកាត់ភាសាអង់គ្លេសដែលត្រូវតែចេះ

នៅក្នុងការរៀនភាសាអង់គ្លេស អ្នកប្រាកដជាបានជួបប្រទះអក្សរកាត់មួយចំនួួនហើយ ជាពិសេសនៅពេលដែលអ្នកអានអត្ថបទស្រាវជ្រាវ ឬក៏សៀវភៅណាមួយ។ ពេលខ្លះ វាអាចធ្វើឲ្យអ្នកខ្ជះខ្ជាយពេលវេលា បើអ្នកមិនយល់ពីអត្ថន័យនៃពាក្យកាត់ទាំងនោះ។ ខាងក្រោមនេះ ជាពាក្យកាត់ពេញនិយមមួយចំនួន ដែលអ្នកអាចនឹងជួបប្រទះជាញឹកញាប់ក្នុងការសិក្សាស្រាវជ្រាវរបស់អ្នក។

  • i.e. (id est) មានន័យថា “that is” or “in other words”.

It is used to paraphrase a statement that was just made, not to mean“for example”, and is always followed by a comma.

  • e.g. (exempli gratia) មានន័យថា “for example”.

It is usually used to give an example of a statement that was just made and is always followed by a comma.

  • viz. (videlicet) មានន័យថា “namely” or “more specifically”’.

It is used to clarify a statement that was just made by providing more information and is never followed by a comma.)

  • etc. (et cetera) មានន័យថា “and so forth” or “and so on”.

It is used to suggest that the reader should infer further examples from a list has been started and is usually not followed by a comma.

  • et al. (et alii) មានន័យថា “and others”.

It is used in place of listing multiple authors past the first and is never followed by a comma. It’s also an abbreviation for et alibi means “and elsewhere”.

  • cf. (conferre) មានន័យថា “compare to” or “see also”.

It is used either to draw a comparison or to refer the reader to somewhere they can find more information and is never followed by a comma.

  • q.v. (quod vide) មានន័យថា “which see” or “go look it up if you’re interested”.

It is used to crossreference a different work or part of a work and is never followed by a comma. The plural form is “q.q.”

  • v.s. (vide supra) មានន័យថា “see above”.

It is used to imply that more information can be found before the current point in a written work and is never followed by a comma.

  • N.B. (Nota Bene) មានន័យថា “note well” or “pay attention to the following”.

It is used to imply that the wise reader will pay especially careful attention to the what follows and is never followed by a comma.

  • vs. (versus) មានន័យថា “against’ or “in contrast to”.

It is used to contrast two things and is never followed by a comma.)

  • c. (circa) មានន័យថា “around” or “near”.

It is used when giving an approximation, usually for a date, and is never followed by a comma. It’s also commonly written as “ca.”, “cir., or “circ.”)

សំណួរដែលគេតែងតែសួរញឹកញាប់ទាក់ទងនឹង អាហារូបករណ៍ជប៉ុន MEXT Scholarship

When you have questions related to the MEXT Scholarship, where do you seek for answers? It is not easy to find someone to sit with you and tell you all the things you want to inquire. Therefore, Ahladang team has conducted a small research and share with you some frequently asked questions which you might also have. Below are frequently asked questions and answers.

General Questions (all categories)

1) When is the opening date for applications, and when is the deadline?

A) Applications for the MEXT scholarships start on 30th April, 2015. The deadline for applications is on 29th May, 2015. (The application period is around that time of the year)

2) Where can I get the application forms and where should I submit them?

A) The application forms are available at the Office of Scholarship and Training of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS), and applications will be accepted there. The Embassy of Japan in Cambodia does not distribute or accept the application forms directly.

3) Can I apply for MEXT scholarship if I don’t have Japanese language proficiency?

A) Although all the applicants for MEXT scholarships must take a Japanese language written exam, it is required only for applicants whose majors, such as Education of Japanese, need a high level of proficiency in a written Japanese language exam.

4) Is the written exam in Japanese, English or Khmer?

A) English except for the Japanese language exam.

5) I already have high scores in English proficiency tests (ex: TOEIC, TOFEL). Do I still need to take the English written exam?

A) All candidates must take all required exams.

6) Will the written exam questions be prepared by the Embassy or the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports?

A) The written exam questions will be prepared by the Embassy. The exam will be held only once for four scholarship programs (Research, Undergraduate, College of Technology, and Specialized Training College).

7) Where can I find sample questions of the written exams?

A) You may find past exam questions at the following URL. http://www.studyjapan.go.jp/en/toj/toj0302e-32.html#1

8) When will the results be announced?

A) The results of the selection in Cambodia will be announced at the beginning of August. The final selection conducted by MEXT will be announced at the end of December.

9) Is a score in an English proficiency test (ex: TOEIC, TOFEL) required to apply for the scholarship?

A) No. The Embassy doesn’t require any scores achieved in previous English proficiency tests.

10) How should I fill in the application form?

A) It is recommended to be typed or written clearly in block letters.

11) I need more space than is provided to write all of my educational background on the application form. What should I do?

A) If you can’t write all of your educational information within the provided space, you may add additional sheets, which have the same format and contain information as on the provided form. Please attach the additional sheets with your application form, and direct us to read the attached sheet at the Educational Background section of the original form.

12) Do I need to translate my certificate to English?

A) This is not necessary when you submit your application forms to the Office of Scholarship and Training of MoEYS. Your application including your certificate will be checked and verified by MoEYS. However, when you pass the written exam and submit all the documents to the Embassy, all of the documents must be translated or written in English or Japanese, except for the transcripts and high school certificate, which will be translated by MoEYS.

13) I have passed the written exam and proceeded to the next step. I found the application forms on the Embassy’s website which are downloadable. Is it OK to complete ALL columns of the form by typing?

A) If the form you download is the same as the one provided by the Embassy, you may use that form to fill in the information and submit it to the Embassy. However, to certify it as yours, it requires your genuine signature in the applicant’s signature column.

14) I only have one original transcript. Can I copy and submit it as an original transcript?

A) The copied ones, which have the seal proved by the municipal office, can be used instead of the original one. However, please try to get original transcripts from your schools if possible.

15) Regarding the recommendation form, is it required to submit 1 original and 2 copies? How can I make copies if the envelope is sealed?

A) Please ask your recommenders to copy it first before your recommender seals the envelop.

16) The photo size required in the application form is 4.5 x 3.5. On the other hand, the usual photo size in Cambodia is 4×6. Is it acceptable if the size on the application form is slightly different?

A) Yes, but please provide ones which are clear and with the subject in the appropriate position.

17) Do I need to submit my health certificate by myself?

A) The MoEYS will send it directly to the Embassy.

18) If I fail the exam, can I take back the application and documents submitted to the Embassy?

A) The Embassy does not return any submitted documents.

19) In previous years, I passed the selection in Cambodia but failed in the final selection. What are the criteria for the selection and reasons why I might have failed in the final?

A) The criteria for selection are not only the written exam scores but also the comprehensive evaluation of written exam scores, submitted documents, and the interview. Also, even if you passed the selection in Cambodia, you also must pass MEXT’s selection, which is a competition with overseas candidates who pass the same selection in their own countries.

Research Students

1) I am currently in my final year at university. Am I eligible to apply for the scholarship?

A) From last year’s year exams for Japanese scholarship, Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports (MoEYS) approves fourth-year students of universities to take exams for research students. However, when he/she passes this exam for Japanese scholarship and he/she can not graduate from his/her university, the decision of passage for Japanese scholarship will be cancelled (that is, he/she can not study in Japan).

2) To apply for the Research Students Scholarship, is it necessary for the applicants to have work experiences?

A) There is no such requirement for the MONBUKAGAKUSHO scholarship.

3) Can I apply for a major that is different from my past major and from my current job?

A) It’s difficult for Japanese universities to accept students who don’t have knowledge in the chosen field. Therefore, you should apply for the field you have studied in the past or which is related to your current job.

4) What is the selection process of the Research Students Scholarship?

A) The first selection process is the written exam (only once), document screening based on a research proposal and an interview. Candidates who pass the first selection will be recommended to the MEXT. The MEXT will conduct the final selection.

5) What are the subjects in the written exam?

A) The Japanese and the English language examinations must be taken by all applicants.

6) For Research students, is Japanese language proficiency important for studying in Japan?

A) Japanese language proficiency is very important for studying and living in Japan. Even if you do not have to study in Japanese, you still need Japanese for your everyday life and communication with Japanese people. However, if you do not have Japanese language proficiency now, the recipients can take a supplementary class in Japanese language in the first 6 months.

7) Can I choose any field for studying in Japan?

A) Although applicants can choose any field of study, they must be subjects which applicants will be able to study and research at Japanese universities. It’s recommended to research in advance whether the field of study of your interest is studied in Japanese universities.

8) How many candidates will be selected from the written exam?

A) Around 40 candidates will be selected from the written exam to proceed to the document screening.

9) After arriving in Japan, what can I do as a scholarship recipient?

A) If your Japanese language proficiency is determined insufficient, usually you will be posted in a Japanese language training institution for the first six months after your arrival in Japan. Then, you may enroll in a research student course until the end of the period of the scholarship, or proceed to a regular graduate course if you want to pursue a master’s or doctoral degree.

10) I already have a Master’s degree. Can I apply for the doctoral course?

A) If you are selected for the Research Students scholarship and hold a

Master’s degree and want to enter a doctoral program, you may proceed to the program.

11) What is the term (period) of the scholarship?

A) The term (period) of the scholarship is as follows:

  • If the grantee comes to Japan in April, his/her scholarship will be payable for 24 months.
  • If the grantee comes to Japan in October, his/her scholarship will be payable for 18 months.
  • In either case, the term of the scholarship includes a 6-month Japanese language training period for grantees who require such training.

12-1) Is the scholarship extendable?

A) The scholarship is extendable. However, it requires that:

  • In a Master’s course in a Natural Science field, recipients must pass the entrance exam by the last day of the 24th month counted from the month of arrival in Japan.
  • In a Master’s course in a Social Science field, recipients must pass the entrance exam by the last day of the 25th month counted from the month of arrival in Japan.
  • In a Doctoral course in a Natural Science field, recipients must pass the entrance exam by the last day of the 13th month counted from the month of arrival in Japan.
  • In a Doctoral course in a Social Science field, recipients must pass the entrance exam by the last day of the 24th month counted from the month of arrival in Japan.

12-2) What will happen if I cannot pass the entrance exam within the abovementioned period?


A) Your scholarship will be ended in 1.5 years or 2 years (depending on the term of your scholarship) after your arrival in Japan.

Undergraduate, College of Technology, and Specialized Training College

1) I am currently enrolled in Grade 12 in a high school and the high school exams will be held after the scholarship application submission deadline. Can I apply for one of these scholarships?

A) From the last year’s exams for Japanese scholarship, Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports (MoEYS) approvs G12 students of high schools to take the exams for undergraduate, college of technology, and specialized training college. However, when he/she passes this exam for Japanese scholarship and he/she fails in the National graduation exam in August, the decision of passage for Japanese scholarship will be cancelled (that is, he/she can not study in Japan.)

2) Can I apply for a major different from my current major at university?

A) It is not required to select a major, which is the same as your current major at university. You can apply for any major regardless of your current major.

3) What are the available fields of study?

A) The available fields of study are as follows:

1) Undergraduate – Social Science and Humanities A: Laws, Politics, Pedagogy, Sociology, Literature, History, Japanese language, and others.

2) Undergraduate – Social Science and Humanities B: Economics, and Business Administration.

3) Undergraduate – Natural Sciences A: Science (Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry), Electric and Electronic Studies (Electronics, Electrical Engineering, Information Engineering), Mechanical Studies (Mechanical Engineering, Naval Architecture), Civil Engineering and Architecture (Civil Engineering, Architecture, Environmental Engineering), Chemical Studies (Applied Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry, Textile Engineering), and other fields (Metallurgical Engineering, Mining Engineering, Maritime Engineering, Biotechnology).

4) Undergraduate – Natural Sciences B: Agricultural Studies (Agriculture, Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural Engineering, Animal Science, Veterinary Medicine, Forestry, Food Science, Fisheries), Hygienic Studies (Pharmacy, Hygienics, Nursing), and Science (Biology).

5) Undergraduate – Natural Sciences C: Medicine, and Dentistry.

6) College of Technology: Mechanical Engineering, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Information, Communication and Network Engineering, Materials Engineering, Architecture and Civil 
Engineering, Maritime Engineering, and other fields.

7) Specialized Training College: Technology, Personal Care and Nutrition, Education and Welfare, Business, Fashion and Home 
Economics, Culture and General Education and other fields.

4) What is the selection process of the scholarship programs of Undergraduate, College of Technology, and Specialized Training College?

A) The first selection process of these scholarship programs is a written exam (only once) and an interview. Candidates who pass the first selection will be recommended to the MEXT. The MEXT will make the final selection of the scholarship recipients.

5) What are the subjects of the written exams for Undergraduate, College of Technology, and Specialized Training College?

A) The subjects of the written exams are as follows:

  • Undergraduate – Social Science field: English, Mathematics A, and Japanese. English and Mathematics A will be especially taken into consideration to decide successful candidates. However, it is required for applicants whose majors need substantial Japanese language proficiency, such as Education of Japanese language, to have a good achievement in the Japanese language written exam too.
  • Undergraduate – Natural Science A field: English, Mathematics B, Chemistry, Physics, and Japanese. English, Mathematics B, Physics and Chemistry will be especially taken into consideration to decide successful candidates. Japanese can be taken into consideration, too.
  • Undergraduate – Natural Science B & C fields: English, Mathematics B, Chemistry, Biology, and Japanese. English, Mathematics B, Chemistry and Biology will be especially taken into consideration to decide successful candidates. Japanese can be taken into consideration, too.
  • College of Technology – Material Engineering field: Mathematics, Chemistry, English and Japanese. Mathematics and Chemistry will be especially taken into consideration to decide successful candidates. Japanese can be taken into consideration, too.
  • College of Technology – Other fields: Mathematics, Physics, English and Japanese. Mathematics and Physics will be especially taken into consideration to decide successful candidates. Japanese can be taken into consideration, too.
  • Specialized Training College: English, Mathematics, and Japanese. Mathematics and English will be especially taking into consideration to decide successful candidates. Japanese can be taken into consideration, too.

6) How many candidates will be selected in the written exam?

A) The numbers of students selected for Undergraduate, College of Technology, and Specialized Training College will depend on the candidates’ scores of the written exams.

8) How long is the term (period) of the scholarship of the Undergraduate, College of Technology, and Specialized Training College? Is it extendable?

A) The periods of these scholarships are as follows:

  • Undergraduate: 5 years (including one year of Japanese language and other necessary subjects)
  • College of Technology: 4 years (including one year of Japanese language and other necessary subjects)
  • Specialized Training College: 3 years (including one year of Japanese language and other necessary subjects).

The periods are extendable upon successfully passing the scholarship extension exam.

Source: MONBUKAGAKUSHO Scholarship 2016, http://www.kh.emb-japan.go.jp/scholarship/2016/Application/FAQ20150525.pdf

If you have questions related to this scholarsihp, please send your inquiries to Ahaldang’s Scholarship Consulting Section. We will response to your questions within 1 week (or more depends on the situation, however, we will try our best).

 

Mr. UK Sovannara
MEXT Scholar 2015
Taito-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Email: ahladangkh@gmail.com

 

ផុន សុកល់៖ រៀបរៀងសៀវភៅគណិតវិទ្យាអូឡាំពិច ព្រោះការស្រលាញ់គណិតវិទ្យា

ជាការលើកទឹកចិត្ត និងកោតសរសើរដល់យុវជនគំរូខ្មែរម្នាក់ដែលបានចូលរួមមចំណែកលើកស្ទួយមុខវិជ្ជាវិទ្យាសាស្រ្តនៅប្រទេសកម្ពុុជា គេហទំព័រអាឡាដាំង មានកិត្តយស ធ្វើការណែនាំយុវជន ផុន សុកល់ ដែលបានស្រាវជ្រាវចងក្រងសៀវភៅគណិតវិទ្យាអូឡាំពិចសម្រាប់ចែករំលែកដល់សិស្សានុសិស្សខ្មែរដើម្បីពង្រឹងចំណេះដឹង និងសមត្ថភាព។

(សៀវភៅអាចដោនឡូតបាននៅខាងក្រោមអត្ថបទមួយនេះ)%e1%9e%9f%e1%9e%b6

យុវជន ផុន សុកល់ ជាអតីតសិស្សវិទ្យាល័យ ប៊ុនរ៉ានីហ៊ុនសែនស្លារម ក្នុងខេត្តតាកែវ ដែលបានបញ្ចប់បាក់ឌុប ក្នុងឆ្នាំ2013  រួចបានទទួលអាហារូបករណ៍ទៅសិក្សានៅវិទ្យាសា្ថនបច្ចេកវិទ្យាកម្ពុជា (សាលាតិចណូ)។ មិនយូរប៉ុន្មាន សុកល់ ក៏បានប្រឡងជាប់អាហារូបករណ៍ MEXT របស់រដ្ឋាភិបាលជប៉ុនទៅសិក្សាជំនាញស្ថាបត្យកម្ម។

មកដល់ប្រទេសជប៉ុនក្នុងឆ្នាំ ២០១៥ សុកល់ ចាប់ផ្តើមរៀនភាសាជប៉ុនរយ:ពេល1ឆ្នាំ ហើយបច្ចុប្បន្នជានិស្សិតស្ថាបត្យកម្មឆ្នាំទីមួយនៅ Yumiuri Istitute of Technology and Welfare នាទីក្រុងតូក្យូ។

តាំងតែពីកុមារភាព សុកល់តែងតែស្រលាញ់គណិតវិទ្យា ហ់ើយបានស្រាវជ្រាវចងក្រងឯកសារគណិតវិទ្យាទុកសម្រាប់ចែករំលែកដល់សិស្សានុសិស្សខ្មែរដើម្បីពង្រឹងសមត្ថភាពទុកអភិវឌ្ឍប្រទេសជាតិឲ្យរីកចម្រើនទៅមុខ។ សុកល់ បាននិយាយជាមួយស្នាមញញឹមថា  “មូលហេតុដែលចូលចិត្តសរសេរសៀវភៅគណិតវិទ្យាអូឡាំពិច ព្រោះដោយការស្រលាញ់គណិតវិទ្យាតាំងពីក្មេង ។ នៅកំឡុងពេលដែលខ្ញុំខិតខំប្រឹងរៀនត្រៀមប្រលងសិស្សពូកែគណិតវិទ្យា ខ្ញុំបានស្រាវជ្រាវលំហាត់គណិតវិទ្យាប្លែកៗជាច្រើន តាមសៀវភៅបរទេសដូចជាសៀវភៅ វៀតណាម អង់គ្លេស ជាដើម ហើយតាមរយៈវេបសាយគណិតវិទ្យាល្បីៗជាច្រើន ខ្ញុំតែងតែឆ្លៀតពេលទំនេរ ដោះស្រាយលំហាត់ដែលបានស្រាវជ្រាវក៏ដូចជាទទួលបានពីគ្រូរបស់ខ្ញុំរួចចងក្រងជាសៀវភៅជាច្រើនក្បាលទាំងសៀវភៅត្រៀមប្រលងសិស្សពូកែថ្នាក់ទី9 និងថ្នាក់ទី12 ដោយមានបំណងចង់ទុកជាទុនឯកសារសម្រាប់សិស្សប្អូនជំនាន់ក្រោយសិក្សាស្រាវជ្រាវ និងម្យ៉ាងទៀត ដោយយល់ឃើញថាទោះបីខ្ញុំមិនបានជោគជ័យក្នុងការប្រឡងសិស្សពូកែគណិតវិទ្យាដូចដែលរំពឹងទុកក៏ដោយ ក៏ខ្ញុំមិនចង់កប់ឯកសារដែលខ្ញុំខិតខំចងក្រងទៅជាមួយនឹងអតីតកាលបរាជ័យនោះដែរ ហើយក៏សង្ឃឹមក្នុងចិត្តថាថ្ងៃទៅមុខទៀត ឯកសារគណិតវិទ្យាអូឡាំពិចជាភាសាជាតិនឹងសម្បូរបែប ទើបជាឈ្នាន់អាចឲ្យវិស័យគណិតវិទ្យាក្នុងស្រុកយើងដើរទាន់ប្រទេសនានាក្នុងសកលលោក ។”

គោលបំណងទៅថ្ងៃអនាគត សុកល់ ចង់ក្លាយជាស្ថាបត្យករម្នាក់ដែលអាចចូលរួមចំណែកលើកកម្ពស់វិស័យសំណង់ស្ថាបត្យកម្មនៅកម្ពុជាឲ្យរីកចម្រើនលូតលាស់ទៅមុខទៀត

សៀវភៅ៖ ១០០ លំហាត់គណិតវិទ្យាអូឡាំពិច

សៀវភៅឥតគិតថ្លៃ៖ IELTS Practice Materials

 

3

សៀវភៅនេះមានចំនុចសំខាន់ៗមួយចំនួនដូចខាងក្រោម៖

  • Practice tests for Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing (both Academic and General Training);
  • Listening, Reading and Writing answer sheets;
  • Listening and Reading practice test answer keys and Listening tapescripts;
  • Sample candidate Writing responses and examiner comments;
  • Sample candidate Speaking tests and examiner comments.

មាន CD សម្រាប់អនុវត្តលំហាត់គម្រូផងដែរ។

ចុចទីនេះដើម្បីដោនឡូត

ប្រភព៖ ASEAN-Insider

វិធីសាស្រ្តក្នុងការសរសេរគម្រោងស្រាវជ្រាវ Research Proposal

អត្ថបទមួយនេះនឹងធ្វើការរៀបរាប់ជាភាសាអង់គ្លេស ដោយផ្តោតលើឯកសារមួយរបស់សាកលវិទ្យាល័យ Avondale College របស់កម្មវិធីសិក្សាថ្នាក់បណ្ឌិត។ ប៉ុន្តែសម្រាប់គម្រោងស្រាវជ្រាវថ្នាក់អនុបណ្ឌិតក៏មានលក្ខណៈប្រហាក់ប្រហែលគ្នាដែរ ដែលជាមូលហេតុដែលក្រុមស្រាវជ្រាវរបស់ អាឡាដាំង គិតថាវាសមស្របសម្រាប់ចែករំលែកដល់អ្នកទាំងអស់គ្នា ជាពិសេសអ្នកដែលមានបំណងដាក់អាហារូបករណ៍ថ្នាក់ក្រោយឧត្តមសិក្សាទៅសិក្សានៅបរទេស។ ដូច្នេះ ពួកយើងសង្ឈឹមថាអត្ថបទមួយនេះនឹងផ្តល់ជាគន្លឹះមួយចំនួនសម្រាប់ត្រួសត្រាយផ្លូវដល់អ្នកទាំងអស់គ្នា។

PurposeThe purpose of an initial proposal is to obtain sufficient information to be able to allocate supervisors and to ensure resources are available for the intended project. Therefore, the initial proposal does not need to be perfect and complete in all respects. A final proposal will be developed under supervision during the first year of candidature. These guidelines are provided to assist in developing a proposal of 6-8 pages in length that is detailed enough to allow the Research Committee to make a decision about whether the project can be supported within Avondale’s areas of research strength and available resources.

Title Page – Include a tentative title, your name, relevant qualifications, the name of the degree for which you are applying, and the date of application.

The following guidelines are not prescriptive and discipline areas may vary to some extent:

Title

The title should be clearly focused, self-explanatory, and a clear description of the proposed research project. Some researchers seek to capture attention through the use of highly expressive or even cryptic titles but mostly this style is better kept for presentations.

Introduction

The introduction may include a description of the research problem (potential or tentative), should be as clearly and unambiguously stated as possible, and to some degree linked to the body of information available in the field of study to be investigated. The connection between the available information and the problem should establish the importance of the study being done, and justify the need for the research. Attempt to write a purpose statement by completing the sentence: The purpose of this study is to …

Second, if you have conducted any form of literature review, then present either a brief review of relevant literature, or the areas of literature that you intend to review. If possible, the review should outline any key issues relating to the topic. Aim to demonstrate your knowledge of the intended topic and placement of the research in the context of related literature. The aim is to justify your proposed investigation on the basis of this project being the next logical step in understanding a significant issue relevant to the topic.

Finally, the problem could be stated in question form, dependent on the research approach being used and the purpose of the study. Quantitative research might posit a research hypothesis, whereas a qualitative or mixed approach may use questions or equivalent. Outline what are the research questions to be addressed?

Methodology

This section indicates how the study is to be structured in order to address the problem by answering the posited questions or hypothesis. There may be both “art” and “science” in the design being used within the study. In this section, all steps in the investigation process should be as clearly and sequentially delineated as possible. If subjects are involved, ethical concerns should be noted in this section. Though methodologies vary, the following describes one simple design process.

(a) Who are the proposed participants (or equivalent) in the study, and what procedures will be used to select these participants (or equivalent).

(b) What proposed methods and/or instruments will be used in the study, and how are these methods and instruments to be chosen or developed and/or trialled?

(c) This section describes the way in which the study will be set up so that data can be gathered, organised and analysed.

Analysis of data

This section is optional and if available may include how the findings will be organised for relevancy to the topic and research questions, and to the overall research approach. Use may be made of spreadsheets or tables, or emergent themes and indicators, etc.

Significance of the study

A description of the importance and timeliness of the study may include an anticipation of what the results will mean for knowledge or theory in the field of study (in a local situation and/or more general situation), and its relationship to further research that may emanate from this current study. This is the place to persuade your readers about the need for this project.. Finally, highlight any perceived benefits, limitations, and expectations relating to the project.

A non-print format for the submission of the PhD thesis is expected to meet the same criteria for examination, although the format in which the thesis is submitted varies from that above. The non-print thesis comprises three components (a) the framing paper; (b) the non-print medium of practice-led research (e.g., exhibition of paintings); and (c) a print thesis component of 40-50,000 words. Components (a) and (b) contribute 50% to the overall result, and component (c) contributes 50%. As with the print thesis, the non-print thesis is expected to engage with theory, take a place in a field, and move the field forward. The non-print thesis follows a sequence suitable to the study and includes objectives, methodology and methods employed in the study.

A comparison between the structure of a print thesis and the non-print thesis, in simple terms, might be:

Traditional Thesis
Visual Arts Non-Print Thesis
Introduction
Introduction
Review of literature
Review of art
Materials and methods
Process of making the art or the theoretical framework the author-artist has used to construct their work or to interrogate their praxis
Results
Examined work of art itself, and/or some representation or description of it.
Discussion
Critical discussion of the author’s work
Conclusions
Conclusion
Source: Adapted from Paltridge, B., et al. (2010)

References

List key references essential to the project and which you may have referred to in the proposal.

Reference
Paltridge, B., Starfield, S., Ravelli, L., Tuckwell, K., & Nicolson, S. (2010). Academic writing in the visual and performing arts: The practice-based doctorate as an evolving genre. Journal of Art and Design Education (forthcoming).